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ABO Blood Group and Rh Type

The most important antigens are blood group antigens (ABO) and the Rh antigen, which is either present (positive, +) or absent (negative, -).

Acetyl Choline Receptor Antibodies (AChRab)

An acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody test is used to help diagnose myasthenia gravis (MG) and to distinguish it from other conditions that may cause similar symptoms, such as chronic muscle fatigue and weakness.

Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) smear

AFB smear refers to microscopic examination of a fluorochrome stain of a clinical specimen which includes sputum and body fluids.


This test is advised to evaluate metastasizing prostate carcinoma, where in the levels are elevated. Increased levels are also seen in cases of hyperthyroidism, Gauchers disease and Nieman Pick disease.

Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR)

This assay is used for evaluation of patients with incident or recurrent Venous Thromboembolism, with family history of Venous Thromboembolism and in women with recurrent miscarriage or complications of pregnancy. It may also be used for evaluating individuals with history of Arterial thrombosis.


This assay measures the amount of adenosine deaminase present in serum/pleural fluid/peritoneal fluid/CSF which helps to diagnose a tuberculous infection.

Adreno Corticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

This assay is used to determine the cause of Hypocortisolism & Hypercortisolism states.  In a patient with hypocortisolism, an elevated ACTH indicates Primary adrenal insufficiency whereas normal levels are consistent with secondary adranal insufficiency from pituitary or hypothalamic causes. In a patient of hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome), a suppressed value is consistent with Cortisol producing Adrenal adenoma/carcinoma, Primary adrenal micronodular hyperplasia & Exogenous corticosteroid use.


Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a tumor marker to help detect and diagnose cancers of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. The test is often ordered to monitor chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C as they have an increased risk of developing liver cancer.


A serum albumin test measures the amount of albumin in the blood. Abnormal serum albumin levels may indicate that your kidneys or liver isn’t working correctly.


This assay is useful in the investigation of Primary Aldosteronism (Adrenal Adenoma / Carcinoma and Adrenal Cortical Hyperplasia) and secondary Aldosteronism (Renovascular disease, salt depletion, potassium loading, cardiac failure with ascitis and pregnancy).

Alkaline Phosphatase

Majority of ALP activity is derived from the liver and bone. Concentrations are increased in patients with biliary obstructive disorders, tumors of liver and bone etc.